Wednesday, December 2, 2009

Feb 26-27 2010 ISSN-AP Workshop, Phoenix AZ

ISSN-Athletes’ Performance: New Advances in Sports Nutrition and Performance Training
Feb 26-27, 2010; Athletes’ Performance Arizona

Thursday, July 23, 2009

Jose Antonio: Educator of the Year

At this year's 32nd annual NSCA conference, ISSN's CEO, Jose Antonio, PhD, CSCS, FNSCA was named Educator of the Year.

Dr. Antonio (on the left in this photo with Dr. Lee Brown) earned this honor for his contributions to teaching and the clinical application in the field of strength training and conditioning. In the words of Robert Jursnick, NSCA's Executive Director, "Jose's well-earned award and his contributions shape NSCA into what it is today."

If you missed this year's NSCA meeting, count on attending next year. I know podcasts, webinars and the like are the current trend for obtaining CEUs but, foregoing conferences means you miss out on networking and you miss out on meeting many people who are truly inspirations to this field.

The NSCA conference gives you access to the people who shape the field of strength and conditioning, those who conduct the research studies we base our programs on and the top trainers and strength coaches worldwide. It's truly an honor and a privilege to know both Jose and Lee Brown, learn from their experiences and listen to their ideas for the future.

Wednesday, July 22, 2009

Whey still best

This study was designed to compare the acute response of mixed muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to rapidly (i.e., whey hydrolysate and soy) and slowly (i.e., micellar casein) digested proteins both at rest and after resistance exercise. Three groups of healthy young men (n=6 per group) performed a bout of unilateral leg resistance exercise followed by the consumption of a drink containing an equivalent content of essential amino acids (10g) as either whey hydrolysate, micellar casein, or soy protein isolate. Mixed muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was determined by a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine. Ingestion of whey protein resulted in a larger increase in blood essential amino acid, branched-chain amino acid, and leucine concentrations than either casein or soy (P<0.05). Mixed MPS at rest (determined in the non-exercised leg) was higher with ingestion of faster proteins (whey=0.091+/-0.015, soy=0.078+/-0.014, casein=0.047+/-0.008 %(.)h(-1);); MPS after consumption of whey was ~93% greater than casein (P<0.01) and ~18% greater than soy (P=0.067). A similar result was observed after exercise (whey>soy>casein); MPS following whey consumption was ~122% greater than casein (P<0.01) and 31% greater than soy (P<0.05). MPS was also greater with soy consumption at rest (64%) and following resistance exercise (69%) compared to casein (both p<0.01). We conclude that the feeding-induced simulation of MPS in young men is greater after whey hydrolysate or soy protein consumption than casein both at rest and after resistance exercise; moreover, despite both being fast proteins whey hydrolysate stimulated MPS to a greater degree than soy after resistance exercise. These differences may be related to how quickly the proteins are digested (i.e., fast vs. slow) or possibly to small differences in leucine content of each protein. Key words: hypertrophy, muscle mass, weightlifting.

J Appl Physiol. 2009 Jul 9. [Epub ahead of print]
Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men.
Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM.
McMaster University.

Monday, July 20, 2009

Higher Protein Diet for Athletes

The protein needs of athletes is a common point of disagreement among nutrition professionals. In response, many established researchers have investigated this question in controlled clinical trials. A summary of the evidence presented by the the National Diary Council (NDC) in a whey protein booklet highlights the importance of high-quality protein for exercisers, older people and individuals on a reduced-energy diet. The article references a recent position of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the American Dietetic Association (ADA), and the Dietitians of Canada (DC) where exercise nutrition authorities agree that regular exercisers may benefit a protein intake that is up to two times greater than the American RDA (0.8g/kg or 0.36g/lb).

Skeletal muscle is degraded by both endurance and strength exercises. Intuitively, it seems that athletes of both kinds, for example runners and powerlifters, may need extra protein to compensate for the demands of exercise-- a lot of research supports this notion. After endurance or resistance training, the exerciser may require a protein intake that is up to two times the RDA value to maximize skeletal muscle mass and achieve peak performance. The following are the protein recommendations (in grams of protein per each lb or kg of body weight) that may be appropriate for different types of exercisers:

A recreational exerciser: 0.5-0.7 g/lb (1.1-1.54g/kg)

An endurance athlete: 0.5-0.8 g/lb (1.1-1.76g/kg)

A strength training athlete: 0.5-0.8 g/lb (1.1-1.76g/kg)

An athlete restricting calories: 0.8-0.9 g/lb (1.76g/kg-1.98g/kg)

For example, the RDA for a 180 pound strength-trained athletes is about 65g/day. A dietary protein intake of 65g/day may be acheived by eating about 8 oz of boneless/skinless chicken breast, for example. On the other hand, both endurance and strength athletes weighting about 180 lb (~82 kg) may require between 90g/day and 144g/day of daily protein. The 90g/day to 144g/day protein recommendation may be met by eating between 11 oz and 18 oz of chicken breast or about four to seven 1-oz scoops of whey protein. In order to maintain skeletal muscle, up to 0.9g of protein per pound of body weight may be beneficial for an athletic individual consuming a reduced-calorie diet. Given that gymnasts, rowers, wrestlers, bodybuilders, powerlifters often utilize lower-calorie meal plans, a higher protein diet may be valuable for these indivuals.

Though protein is recognized for its role in maintaining and repairing skeletal muscle tissue,some amino acids may also influence metabolic processes. For example, research performed by DK Layman and his colleagues demonstrates that the essential branched chain amino acid leucine, plentiful in whey protein, signals structural protein synthesis. Leucine appears to “turn on” the muscle-building machinery in the body, in addition fueling muscle during exercise and serving as a structural component of muscle.

The overall amount of protein is important, but the quality of dietary protein is also of consequence. High-quality or “complete” dietarty proteins are usually extracted from animal sources. Most vegetable proteins, like those coming from beans, grains and nuts, do not contain all of the needed parts and must be carefully “complemented” to be complete. Furthermore, plant proteins are generally low in signaling proteins, like leucine. If you are a vegetarian, soy is a good source of plant-based protein. Also, this chart is a helpful guide for meal-planning with the use of complementary proteins.

In conclusion, both competitive and recreational exercisers may benefit from dietary protein intake that is up to two times greater than the RDA. High quality dietary proteins include lean meat, low-fat dairy, polutry, eggs and whey powder.

Sunday, May 31, 2009

Microencapsulated foods as a functional delivery vehicle for omega-3 fatty acids: a pilot study

It is well established that the ingestion of the omega-3 (N3) fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) positively benefit a variety of health indices. Despite these benefits the actual intake of fish derived N3 is relatively small in the United States. The primary aim of our study was to examine a technology capable of delivering omega-3 fatty acids in common foods via microencapsulation (MicroN3) in young, healthy, active participants who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, we randomized 20 participants (25.4 +/- 6.2 y; 73.4 +/- 5.1 kg) to receive the double blind delivery of a placebo-matched breakfast meal (~2093 kJ) containing MicroN3 (450-550 mg EPA/DHA) during a 2-week pilot trial. Overall, we observed no differences in overall dietary macronutrient intake other than the N3 delivery during our treatment regimen. Post-test ANOVA analysis showed a significant elevation in mean (SE) plasma DHA (91.18 +/- 9.3 vs. 125.58 +/- 11.3 umol/L; P<0.05) and a reduction in triacylglycerols (89.89 +/- 12.8 vs. 80.78 +/- 10.4 mg/dL; P<0.05) accompanying the MicroN3 treatment that was significantly different from placebo (P < 0.05). In post study interviews, participants reported that the ingested food was well-tolerated, contained no fish taste, odor or gastrointestinal distress accompanying treatment. The use of MicroN3 foods provides a novel delivery system for the delivery of essential fatty acids. Our study demonstrates that MicroN3 foods promote the absorption of essential N3, demonstrate bioactivity within 2 weeks of ingestion and are well tolerated in young, active participants who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease.

Thursday, May 21, 2009

White Tea extract induces lipolytic activity and inhibits adipogenesis in human subcutaneous (pre)-adipocytes.

Source: Nutr Metab (Lond). 2009 May 1;6(1):20. [Epub ahead of print]

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in obesity-related diseases emphasizes the need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fat metabolism. To investigate how natural substances influence lipolysis and adipogenesis, we determined the effects of White Tea extract on cultured human subcutaneous preadipocytes and adipocytes. METHODS: For our in vitro studies we used a White Tea extract solution that contained polyphenols and methylxanthines. Utilizing cultured human preadipocytes we investigated White Tea extract solution-induced inhibition of triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis and possible effects on cell viability. In vitro studies on human adipocytes were performed aiming to elucidate the efficacy of White Tea extract solution to stimulate lipolytic activity. To characterize White Tea extract solution-mediated effects on a molecular level, we analyzed gene expression of essential adipogenesis-related transcription factors by qRT-PCR and determined the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c on the protein level utilizing immunofluorescence analysis. RESULTS: Our data show that incubation of preadipocytes with White Tea extract solution significantly decreased triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis in a dose- dependent manner (n = 10) without affecting cell viability (n = 10). These effects were, at least in part, mediated by EGCG (n = 10, 50 muM). In addition, White Tea extract solution also stimulated lipolytic activity in adipocytes (n = 7). Differentiating preadipocytes cultivated in the presence of 0.5% White Tea extract solution showed a decrease in PPARgamma, ADD1/SREBP-1c, C/EBPalpha and C/EBPdelta mRNA levels. Moreover, the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c was not only decreased on the mRNA but also on the protein level. CONCLUSIONS: White Tea extract is a natural source that effectively inhibits adipogenesis and stimulates lipolysis-activity. Therefore, it can be utilized to modulate different levels of the adipocyte life cycle.

Cereal with milk is better than sugar-filled sports drinks

Posted originally here:

In college, I once watched a kid eat two hotdogs with ketchup and a bowl of Lucky Charms for dinner. I was in awe. But maybe the gross stoner was onto something.

Because new findings in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition claim eating a bowl of cereal and milk works better before a workout than sports drinks.

For the study, scientists had 12 trained cyclists, 8 male and 4 female, go through a typical exercise routine, a brief warm-up followed by two hours of peddling at a comfortable pace.

Researchers say a bowl of whole grain cereal and milk recharged muscles just as good as sports drinks, calling it a better option for amateur athletes than pricey drinks, but here’s the catch.

The study was sponsored by the General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition. Clearly, there is a not-so hidden agenda here. A lot like a recent resport by the Wrigley Science Institute, which claims chewing gum helps control appetite and weight-gain.

Now, if I’m feeling picky before Yoga I grab a banana. Not cereal. Then again, I’m lactose intolerant. So having milk then squatting would not be a good idea.

Monday, May 18, 2009

Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus

Published Dec 2008 in

MM Silveri*1,2,3, J Dikan1, AJ Ross1,2,3, JE Jensen2,3, T Kamiya4, Y Kawada4, PF
Renshaw2,3, DA Yurgelun-Todd1,2,3
1Cognitive Neuroimaging Laboratory and 2Brain Imaging Center, McLean Hospital,
Belmont, MA, and 3Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston,
MA, USA; 4Healthcare Products Development Center, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co.,
Ltd., Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JAPAN
Background: Citicoline supplementation has been used to ameliorate memory
disturbances in elderly and Alzheimer’s disease populations. The current study
used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to characterize the effects of
citicoline on high-energy phosphate metabolites and constituents of membrane
synthesis in the frontal lobe. Phosphorus (31P) metabolite data were acquired
using a three-dimensional chemical-shift imaging (3D-CSI) protocol at 4 Tesla
from sixteen healthy men and women (aged 47.3 ± 5.4 years) who orally selfadministered
500 mg or 2000 mg of Cognizin® Citicoline (Kyowa Hakko Kogyo
Co., Ltd., JAPAN) for six weeks. Individual 31P metabolites were quantified in the
frontal lobe (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC) and a comparison region (parietooccipital
cortex, POC). Significant increases in phosphocreatine (PCr, +7%), beta
nucleoside triphosphates (β-NTP; largely ATP in brain, +14%) and the ratio of PCr
to inorganic phosphate (Pi, +32%), as well as significant changes in membrane
phospholipids, were observed in the ACC after six weeks of citicoline treatment.
These treatment-related alterations in phosphorus metabolites were not only
regionally specific, but tended to be of greater magnitude in subjects who received
the lower dose. These data demonstrate that citicoline improves frontal lobe
bioenergetics and alters phospholipid membrane turnover. Citicoline
supplementation may therefore help mitigate cognitive declines associated with
aging by increasing energy reserves and utilization, as well as increasing the
amount of essential phospholipid membrane components needed to synthesize
and maintain cell membranes.

Dr. Yurgelun-Todd will present this data June 16th, 2009 at the ISSN meeting in New Orleans.

Wednesday, April 29, 2009

The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and mus

Mike Spillane1 , Ryan Schoch4 , Matt Cooke1 , Travis Harvey5 , Mike Greenwood1 , Richard Kreider3 and Darryn S Willoughby1,2
1Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Baylor University, Box 97313, Waco, TX 76798, USA
2Institute for Biomedical Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX 87898, USA
3Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 78743, USA
4Interdepartmental Nutrition Program, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
5Department of Physical Education, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY 10096, USA
author email corresponding author email
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2009, 6:6doi:10.1186/1550-2783-6-6
The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:
29 December 2008
19 February 2009
19 February 2009
© 2009 Spillane et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Numerous creatine formulations have been developed primarily to maximize creatine absorption. Creatine ethyl ester is alleged to increase creatine bio-availability. This study examined how a seven-week supplementation regimen combined with resistance training affected body composition, muscle mass, muscle strength and power, serum and muscle creatine levels, and serum creatinine levels in 30 non-resistance-trained males. In a double-blind manner, participants were randomly assigned to a maltodextrose placebo (PLA), creatine monohydrate (CRT), or creatine ethyl ester (CEE) group. The supplements were orally ingested at a dose of 0.30 g/kg fat-free body mass (approximately 20 g/day) for five days followed by ingestion at 0.075 g/kg fat free mass (approximately 5 g/day) for 42 days. Results showed significantly higher serum creatine concentrations in PLA (p = 0.007) and CRT (p = 0.005) compared to CEE. Serum creatinine was greater in CEE compared to the PLA (p = 0.001) and CRT (p = 0.001) and increased at days 6, 27, and 48. Total muscle creatine content was significantly higher in CRT (p = 0.026) and CEE (p = 0.041) compared to PLA, with no differences between CRT and CEE. Significant changes over time were observed for body composition, body water, muscle strength and power variables, but no significant differences were observed between groups. In conclusion, when compared to creatine monohydrate, creatine ethyl ester was not as effective at increasing serum and muscle creatine levels or in improving body composition, muscle mass, strength, and power. Therefore, the improvements in these variables can most likely be attributed to the training protocol itself, rather than the supplementation regimen.

I guess I'll keep my creatine monohydrate...gotta love results!

MIxed Carbohydrate Sources and Endurance Performance.

Three studies- all conducted by Jeukendrup et all - all concerning whether mixed sources of carbs (specifically glucose + fructose) will increase endurance performance.
1) Superior endurance performance with ingestion of multiple transportable carbohydrates. Feb 0840(2):275-281, February 2008.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ingesting a glucose plus fructose drink compared with a glucose-only drink (both delivering carbohydrate at a rate of 1.8 g/min) and a water placebo on endurance performance.
Basically this study had the subjects exercise for 120 mins at 55% of Vo2 max while taking in either glucose only (G) or glucose and fructose (GF), and then complete a time trial and see which version spared more glucose. It was not clear whether the subjects were actually taking in the mixed carbs during the TT. The GF trial had the fastest time to completion on the TT and the following conclusion was reached:
Conclusion: Ingestion of GF led to an 8% improvement in cycling time-trial performance compared with ingestion of G.

2) Multiple transportable carbohydrates enhance gastric emptying and fluid delivery.
Nov 08.

This study looked at whether the mixed carbs would increase gastric emptying. This time the subjects cycled at 61% of VO2 max for 120 mins.
with the result that the GLU+FRU resulted in faster rates of gastric emptying and that GLU+FRU also attenuated the rise in heart rate that occurred in GLU and WATER and resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion. There was a greater loss in body weight with GLU corrected for fluid intake. These data suggest that ingestion of a combined GLU+FRU solution increases GE and "fluid delivery" compared with a glucose only solution.

3) Exogenous CHO oxidation with glucose plus fructose intake during exercise.
Feb 09.
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether combined ingestion of moderate amounts of glucose plus fructose would result in higher rates of exogenous CHO oxidation compared with an isocaloric amount of glucose alone.
METHODS: Seven endurance-trained male cyclists performed three experimental trials consisting of 150 min of cycling at 65% VO(2max). Subjects ingested a CHO solution providing glucose (GLU) at an average rate of 0.8 g min(-1), glucose (0.54 g min(-1)) plus fructose (0.26 g min(-1)) (GLU + FRU), or plain water (WAT) during exercise. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that ingesting moderate amounts of glucose plus fructose does not increase exogenous CHO oxidation above that of an isocaloric amount of glucose alone.

My take on all 3 studies: What good is it to test trained cyclists at 55% and 61% of VO2 max for Gastric emptying or depletion of exogenous carbohydrates? Who in the world races at this low an intensity???!!!($*&_&%_(Q#&%_$)#Q***@%#$@!! :) Huh? Who? Tell me?
As the good Dr. Bill Eisner says, at that low an intensity I could eat pizza and probably not get an upset stomach and may indeed have fairly good rates of GE! Given that there are tales of gastric distress with fructose intake and that other studies have shown that typical rates of GE are around 60g of CHO (any kind) , don't we need to see these studies done at intensities that mimic race conditions? Even an ultradistance athlete will be going at around 75%VO2max. Let's see this study done.
Thank you.