Sunday, May 31, 2009

Microencapsulated foods as a functional delivery vehicle for omega-3 fatty acids: a pilot study

It is well established that the ingestion of the omega-3 (N3) fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) positively benefit a variety of health indices. Despite these benefits the actual intake of fish derived N3 is relatively small in the United States. The primary aim of our study was to examine a technology capable of delivering omega-3 fatty acids in common foods via microencapsulation (MicroN3) in young, healthy, active participants who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, we randomized 20 participants (25.4 +/- 6.2 y; 73.4 +/- 5.1 kg) to receive the double blind delivery of a placebo-matched breakfast meal (~2093 kJ) containing MicroN3 (450-550 mg EPA/DHA) during a 2-week pilot trial. Overall, we observed no differences in overall dietary macronutrient intake other than the N3 delivery during our treatment regimen. Post-test ANOVA analysis showed a significant elevation in mean (SE) plasma DHA (91.18 +/- 9.3 vs. 125.58 +/- 11.3 umol/L; P<0.05) and a reduction in triacylglycerols (89.89 +/- 12.8 vs. 80.78 +/- 10.4 mg/dL; P<0.05) accompanying the MicroN3 treatment that was significantly different from placebo (P < 0.05). In post study interviews, participants reported that the ingested food was well-tolerated, contained no fish taste, odor or gastrointestinal distress accompanying treatment. The use of MicroN3 foods provides a novel delivery system for the delivery of essential fatty acids. Our study demonstrates that MicroN3 foods promote the absorption of essential N3, demonstrate bioactivity within 2 weeks of ingestion and are well tolerated in young, active participants who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease.

Thursday, May 21, 2009

White Tea extract induces lipolytic activity and inhibits adipogenesis in human subcutaneous (pre)-adipocytes.

Source: Nutr Metab (Lond). 2009 May 1;6(1):20. [Epub ahead of print]

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in obesity-related diseases emphasizes the need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fat metabolism. To investigate how natural substances influence lipolysis and adipogenesis, we determined the effects of White Tea extract on cultured human subcutaneous preadipocytes and adipocytes. METHODS: For our in vitro studies we used a White Tea extract solution that contained polyphenols and methylxanthines. Utilizing cultured human preadipocytes we investigated White Tea extract solution-induced inhibition of triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis and possible effects on cell viability. In vitro studies on human adipocytes were performed aiming to elucidate the efficacy of White Tea extract solution to stimulate lipolytic activity. To characterize White Tea extract solution-mediated effects on a molecular level, we analyzed gene expression of essential adipogenesis-related transcription factors by qRT-PCR and determined the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c on the protein level utilizing immunofluorescence analysis. RESULTS: Our data show that incubation of preadipocytes with White Tea extract solution significantly decreased triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis in a dose- dependent manner (n = 10) without affecting cell viability (n = 10). These effects were, at least in part, mediated by EGCG (n = 10, 50 muM). In addition, White Tea extract solution also stimulated lipolytic activity in adipocytes (n = 7). Differentiating preadipocytes cultivated in the presence of 0.5% White Tea extract solution showed a decrease in PPARgamma, ADD1/SREBP-1c, C/EBPalpha and C/EBPdelta mRNA levels. Moreover, the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c was not only decreased on the mRNA but also on the protein level. CONCLUSIONS: White Tea extract is a natural source that effectively inhibits adipogenesis and stimulates lipolysis-activity. Therefore, it can be utilized to modulate different levels of the adipocyte life cycle.

Cereal with milk is better than sugar-filled sports drinks

Posted originally here:

In college, I once watched a kid eat two hotdogs with ketchup and a bowl of Lucky Charms for dinner. I was in awe. But maybe the gross stoner was onto something.

Because new findings in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition claim eating a bowl of cereal and milk works better before a workout than sports drinks.

For the study, scientists had 12 trained cyclists, 8 male and 4 female, go through a typical exercise routine, a brief warm-up followed by two hours of peddling at a comfortable pace.

Researchers say a bowl of whole grain cereal and milk recharged muscles just as good as sports drinks, calling it a better option for amateur athletes than pricey drinks, but here’s the catch.

The study was sponsored by the General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition. Clearly, there is a not-so hidden agenda here. A lot like a recent resport by the Wrigley Science Institute, which claims chewing gum helps control appetite and weight-gain.

Now, if I’m feeling picky before Yoga I grab a banana. Not cereal. Then again, I’m lactose intolerant. So having milk then squatting would not be a good idea.

Monday, May 18, 2009

Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus

Published Dec 2008 in

MM Silveri*1,2,3, J Dikan1, AJ Ross1,2,3, JE Jensen2,3, T Kamiya4, Y Kawada4, PF
Renshaw2,3, DA Yurgelun-Todd1,2,3
1Cognitive Neuroimaging Laboratory and 2Brain Imaging Center, McLean Hospital,
Belmont, MA, and 3Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston,
MA, USA; 4Healthcare Products Development Center, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co.,
Ltd., Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JAPAN
Background: Citicoline supplementation has been used to ameliorate memory
disturbances in elderly and Alzheimer’s disease populations. The current study
used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to characterize the effects of
citicoline on high-energy phosphate metabolites and constituents of membrane
synthesis in the frontal lobe. Phosphorus (31P) metabolite data were acquired
using a three-dimensional chemical-shift imaging (3D-CSI) protocol at 4 Tesla
from sixteen healthy men and women (aged 47.3 ± 5.4 years) who orally selfadministered
500 mg or 2000 mg of Cognizin® Citicoline (Kyowa Hakko Kogyo
Co., Ltd., JAPAN) for six weeks. Individual 31P metabolites were quantified in the
frontal lobe (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC) and a comparison region (parietooccipital
cortex, POC). Significant increases in phosphocreatine (PCr, +7%), beta
nucleoside triphosphates (β-NTP; largely ATP in brain, +14%) and the ratio of PCr
to inorganic phosphate (Pi, +32%), as well as significant changes in membrane
phospholipids, were observed in the ACC after six weeks of citicoline treatment.
These treatment-related alterations in phosphorus metabolites were not only
regionally specific, but tended to be of greater magnitude in subjects who received
the lower dose. These data demonstrate that citicoline improves frontal lobe
bioenergetics and alters phospholipid membrane turnover. Citicoline
supplementation may therefore help mitigate cognitive declines associated with
aging by increasing energy reserves and utilization, as well as increasing the
amount of essential phospholipid membrane components needed to synthesize
and maintain cell membranes.

Dr. Yurgelun-Todd will present this data June 16th, 2009 at the ISSN meeting in New Orleans.